In medical-scientific dissertation on: “Cutaneous Hyperpigmentation and its Complexities” -Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Buenos Aires. Argentina, by Dr. Arcadio Villegas

Dr. Arcadio Villgas – Dermatologist and Clinical Director of SKINDERMA Medical Cosmetics

Cutaneous hyperpigmentation is an intriguing dermatological phenomenon that affects a wide range of individuals across the world. This dissertation seeks an in-depth exploration of the complexities associated with hyperpigmentation, encompassing the underlying causes, risk factors, and the most innovative treatment approaches available. A comprehensive understanding of hyperpigmentation is essential to providing effective care and improving patients’ quality of life.


Skin hyperpigmentation is a common disorder that manifests as an increase in the production of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. Although it is not harmful to health, it can have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life, affecting their self-esteem and emotional well-being. Understanding the complexity of this phenomenon is crucial for dermatologists, doctors and scientists interested in the skin and its manifestations.

Causes of Hyperpigmentation

. Sun Exposure: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) is one of the main causes of hyperpigmentation. UV radiation triggers a series of molecular events that lead to increased melanin production, resulting in freckles, sunspots and skin damage.

. Genetic Factors: Genetic predisposition plays a crucial role in susceptibility to hyperpigmentation. Some individuals are more likely to develop dark spots in response to stimuli, such as sun exposure, due to differences in the genetic characteristics of their skin.

. Hormonal Disorders: Hormonal changes, such as those occurring during pregnancy or due to the use of oral contraceptives, can lead to the development of melasma, a specific form of hyperpigmentation. Hormones, in particular estrogen, play a crucial role in regulating melanin production.

. Inflammatory Processes and Skin Lesions: Inflammation of the skin, resulting from conditions such as acne, eczema or injuries, can result in post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. This occurs when the healing process involves excessive melanin production, resulting in dark spots in the affected area.

. Skin Aging: Skin aging is associated with a series of changes that can include hyperpigmentation. Age marks, for example, are often caused by the accumulation of past sun exposure and damaged repair processes over time.

Diagnosis and Assessment

The accurate diagnosis of hyperpigmentation requires a careful approach.

. Detailed Clinical History: Collecting information about sun exposure, medication use, hormonal disorders and family history is essential to identify potential causes.

. Clinical Examination: Visual assessment of the skin, often aided by a Wood’s lamp to highlight hyperpigmentation, helps determine the nature, extent and location of affected areas.

. Specialized Lighting: In some cases, evaluation under different light sources, such as Wood’s light or polarized light, may reveal additional features of hyperpigmentation and help determine the depth of pigmentation.

Hyperpigmentation Treatment explored allong SKINDERMA dermatological team expertise

The treatment options we are exploring to the develop and to treat this dermatological disorder are diverse and must be adapted to each case:

. Sunscreens: Sun protection is the basis of hyperpigmentation treatment. Regular use of broad-spectrum sunscreens with adequate SPF helps prevent dark spots from worsening and new ones from appearing.

. Whitening Creams: Creams containing active ingredients such as hydroquinone, kojic acid, ascorbic acid, glycolic acid and retinoids are often prescribed to inhibit melanin production.

. Chemical Peels: Superficial and medium peels, with acids such as salicylic acid, lactic acid or glycolic acid, can be used to remove the surface layer of the skin, stimulate cell renewal and improve the uniformity of skin tone.

. Melasma Treatment: Melasma is a complex condition that often requires a multifaceted approach, including creams, peels, laser therapies and control of hormonal triggers. For that reason in SKINDERMA we decided to develop an unique powerful treatment that will focus on the scope of the causes that are responsible for this disease.


Skin hyperpigmentation is a multifaceted phenomenon that requires a deep understanding of its causes and treatment. The dermatologist plays a fundamental role in evaluating and guiding patients affected by hyperpigmentation, seeking to provide healthy and uniform skin. This dissertation provides a solid foundation for future research and development in the dermatological field, as well as demonstrating SKINDERMA Medical Cosmetics’ commitment to providing effective and innovative treatments.

Dr. Arcadio Villgas

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